Les institutions en Angleterre (oral d'anglais CRPE)
"The Queen reigns but does not govern".
[...] There is no written constitution but laws, decrees and reinterpreted laws. The constitution adapts readily to changing political conditions and ideas : this has enabled Britain to avoid violent revolutions. The constitution is unitary : unlike the United States of America, the United Kingdom (i.e. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) is not a federation. Queen reigns but does not govern” The Queen embodies the unity of the nation and of the Commonwealth. She is Head of the State, Head of the Church of England, Head of the Commonwealth. [...]
[...] The Monarch has to comply with the English traditional love of pageantry grand display, pomp). The Coronation, Royal weddings and funerals or Jubilees are exceptional occasions for the Queen’s appearance in public in full state and grandeur, as no other country in the world can show nowadays. The Sovereign’s Escort of Life Guards or Royal Horse Guards when the Queen welcomes a foreign head of State, Trooping the Colours on the Monarch’s official birthday in June are events of splendour, together with the State Opening of Parliament at the beginning of every Parliamentary Session in November (on that occasion the Monarch reads the “Speech from the Throne” written by the Prime Minister). [...]
[...] The Unoccupied Palaces, such as the Tower of London and Hampton Court, are maintained from visitor admissions. NB. Sandringham in Norfolk and Balmoral in Scotland belong to the Royal Family personally. Royal transport, required to enable the Royal Family to carry out almost 3000 engagements a year, is also funded by Grant-in-Aid. It is often wondered how much money the British Royal Family does have. This will probably never be known, but HM The Queen does own a company called The Crown Estates Ltd. This firm's annual profits are over £160 million. [...]
[...] A candidate does not require any party. He must deposit £500 which are returned if the votes exceed Who can vote ? British citizens and citizens of the Commonwealth countries, provided they are aged 18 and registered in the Annual Register of Electors and are not subject to any disqualification. The right to vote became universal for men by stages in the 19th century and for women in the 20th century (1928). In 1970, the minimum voting age was reduced to 18. [...]
[...] We must add the “Lord Spiritual” (clergy of the Church of England) and the Lords” (judges). The hereditary Lords who want to pursue a political role must give up their title under the Life Peerage Act of 1958. The functions of the House of Lords are basically judicial. It is a legislative chamber whose power has gradually been limited particularly in the 20th century(with the 1911 and 1949 Acts restricting the Lords’ right of veto). It is the highest and final court of appeal in Britain. [...]
[...] Nowadays, the Monarchy remains very popular, even though scandals have affected some of the members of the Royal family. The royal family used to provide a moral example, but in modern life, it is not necessarily the case anymore. Yet republicans ideas do not find many followers and attacks on the Queen are resented. Monarchy in Great-Britain is a powerful symbol, and as such it is very dear to the country at large. PARLIAMENT It is the supreme legislative authority in Great-Britain. [...]