P.D. Leedy and J.E. Ormrod, "Practical Research: Planning and Design": summary
Summary of the book written by P.D. Leedy and J.E. Ormrod, Practical Research: Planning and Design. It deals with the basic research methodology. How to plan a research project in engineering? How to write a report?
[...] Focus more on organization and logical thought sequences than on exact wording, grammatical correctness and spelling Present the research problem at the beginning of the ﬁrst chapter 5. Provide a context for your research problem 6. Convince the reader of the importance of your project 7. Assume that your readers know nothing whatsoever about your proposed project 8. Communicate that you have an open mind about what you will ﬁnd: «the purpose of this study is to determine whether . or «the proposed research project is designed to investigate the possible eﬀects of . 9. Describe your proposed methodology with as much details and precision as possible. [...]
[...] Ordinal data rather than interval. Addition & subtraction impossible How far an individual's performance is from the mean with respect to standard deviation units. Provide context for the scores Converting data to standard scores does not change the shape of the distribution, only mean and standard deviation of that distribution Standard score σ Simplest standard score is Calculated by using an individual's raw score Will be negative for certain group of people Page : 62 MTR801 Part 2 Chapter 7 New new z = ( z * σ new ) + M new IQ scale: mean of 100 (Mnew=100) and a standard deviation of 15 (σnew=15) Stanine: mean of 5 (Mnew=5) and a standard deviation of 2 (σnew=2). [...]
[...] 18.Of the following, the one that is of LEAST concern to a qualitative researcher is Control of confounding variables. Although the qualitative researcher seeks coherence in the data, control of extraneous variables is not a concern since multiple data sources are involved. 19.Eliza is conducting an ethnographic study of children living in homeless shelters in her community. She has hypothesized that parental neglect will be one factor in the emotional well-‐being of the children. However, as she has proceeded in her investigation, she has discovered that many of the parents are, in fact, very concerned about the emotional needs of their children. [...]
[...] To help you ﬁnd needed information, you can use a search engine such as Google or Yahoo. 11.A political pollster wants to conduct a telephone survey to measure people's attitudes about raising property taxes. Attitudes are an example of what kind of measurement? Insubstantial Attitudes are intangible entities that don't have physical substance. They are insubstantial measurements. 12.A researcher is interested in measuring "school satisfaction." To measure this construct, he asks schoolchildren in grades to review a list of 10 adjectives describing school (e.g., interesting, challenging, boring). [...]
[...] 16.The major purpose of random sampling in a descriptive study is to ensure That each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. In quantitative research, a good sample is one that is representative of the population from which it was selected. When such a random sample is selected, the researcher can assume that the characteristics of the sample approximate the characteristics of the total population. 17.Mr. Marino has compiled a list of 1,348 students in his high school. [...]