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Docs en anglais
publié le 04/07/2012
Document de 23 pages au format WORDTweeter
International business and export management including: export diagnosis and organizational export activities, market selection criteria and potential market, market survey and choice of markets, visiting the potential market
Committed to serving markets outside of its home country. This may be a planned process or arise from perceived new opportunities or threats. Internationalization is most effective when developed as a planned process for increasing penetration of international markets. In entering target markets, companies have traditionally begun with EXPORTING, later developed a sales subsidiary abroad, and finally developed production facilities abroad.
Using a sales subsidiary, licensing may be used as an initial entry strategy for many companies, and at later stages for others. Then strategic alliances may be formed.
Whatever the approaches used they should be carefully thought out, with all advantages and disadvantages analyzed, before implementation.
The terms International, Multinational (transnational) and Global are often used interchangeably when referring to international operations in general. It is useful to distinguish between these terms since they imply differences in approaches to marketing.
International marketing refers to any marketing activity that is carried out across national boundaries. Thus it could include anything from exporting one product to another country or to a major effort to market a number of products to many countries.
The term multinational is associated with companies that treated each foreign market as separate and distinct, developing differentiated products and marketing strategies specifically for each market.
The term global marketing originally came into use as a result of the move toward global corporations that would operate as if the entire world, or a major region of the world, were a single entity (Theodore Levitt's discussion, 1986): such companies would sell the same product(s) in the same way everywhere as people all over the world are becoming more alike in their tastes. So that they would accept the same standardized products if the prices were low and the quality good. The economies of scale in producing and marketing a product in the same way world wide would produce substantially lower costs, and thus allow lower prices that would overcome remaining differences in tastes. This appears to be the case for some products such as for instance Coca Cola, Daimler Chrysler automobiles or MacDonald's fast food (...)
Table of Contents:
A. Internationalization strategy (concept) and degree of internationalization of a firm
II) Export strategy
A. Export diagnosis and organizational export activities (case)
B. Market selection criteria and potential market
C. Market survey and choice of markets (case)
D. Visiting the potential market : entry modes and marketing plan (case)
III) Entry and expansion : multinational or global approach
A. Organizing in the market country and decision models (case)
B. Ownership and control (case)
C. Expansion strategy
Docs en anglais publié le 04/07/2012
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